Maria Ruiz-Primo

Maria Araceli Ruiz-Primo

University of Colorado,
School of Education and Human Development
Denver, US

Maria Araceli Ruiz-Primo is an Associate Professor at the School of Education and Human Development, University of Colorado Denver. She is director of the school Research Center and director of the Laboratory of Educational Assessment, Research, and InnovatioN (LEARN). Her work focuses on two strands: (1) assessment of students learning at both large-scale and classroom level and (2) the study of teachers’ assessment practices. Her recent work focuses on the development and evaluation of instructionally sensitive assessments and instruments of formative assessment practices in the classroom. She recently co-edited a special issue on assessment for the Journal of Research in Science Teaching.


The research I have done on formative assessment. I have done research on teachers’ written feedback practices for 14 years. I have conducted a meta-analysis on feedback in three disciplines: science, mathematics, and engineering. I continue studying doing research in science and mathematics classrooms on formative assessment practices.



Capturing Formative Assessment Practices in the Classroom:
Differences Between Experts and Novices Teachers


My presentation will describe a study conducted in 15 classrooms to gather information about the formative assessments practices teachers, of varying levels of expertise, implemented. The presentation will focus on those dimensions that proved to distinguish experts from novices based on the analysis of the videos collected. To capture the formative assessment practices (formal and informal) we developed a coding scheme that could capture the strategies used by teachers in implementing different instructional tasks (e.g., warm-up, covering content, reviewing students’ responses). For each task we coded: (1) how the task was introduced – strategies used to share the learning goals, targets, or purposes with the students; and (2) what the teacher and student did during the implementation of the task – e.g., did the teacher ask students questions to elicit information? Did the students ask questions? Of what type? What did the teacher and the student did after a question was posed?



Citation – Please refer to information and materials available on this website, in this way:

Fifth International Symposium on Assessment for Learning (April, 2014).
     Website International Symposium on Classroom Assessment.
     Accessed at:

Slides used: USA group presentation
Ⓒ2014 Susan Brookhart, Heidi Andrade, Margaret Heritage, Maria Ruiz-Primo and Caroline Wylie