Susan Brookhart

Susan Brookhart

Brookhart Enterprises LLC,
Duquesne University, Pennsylania, US

SUSAN M. BROOKHART, Ph.D., is an independent educational consultant and author. Her interests include the role of both formative and summative classroom assessment in student motivation and achievement, the connection between classroom assessment and large-scale assessment, and grading, and she currently works as both a researcher and professional developer in those areas.

Sue was the 2007-2009 editor of Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice. She is author or co-author of fifteen books and over 60 articles and book chapters on classroom assessment, teacher professional development, and evaluation.


Internationally recognized scholar in the area of classroom assessment.
Participant in the International conference on Assessment for Learning since 2005.



Changing Teachers’ Minds: Developing Formative Assessment Capacity


Two powerful “mindsets” are at work when teachers try to work with formative assessment. Teachers who think formative assessment is a teaching method to enhance their own instruction want to keep control of the process – they want someone to tell them how to “do” formative assessment. Teachers who think that formative assessment is about wrapping students’ heads around their own learning want to give away control over the learning (not the teaching, of course) – they want to learn how to look at learning from the student’s-eye view. Any formative assessment strategy can be co-opted into becoming something teacher-centered and not at all formative. On the other hand, teachers with a student-centered mindset can make almost all teaching formative. This presentation will illustrate the two mindsets and suggest ways to help teachers move from a teacher-centered mindset to a student-centered mindset, to improve both the use of formative assessment strategies and their effects on students.


Sue Brookhart writes about assessment topics for teachers, administrators, and other educators. Here are some links:
Assessing Creativity

Starting the Conversation about Grading

The Many Meanings of Multiple Measures


Citation – Please refer to information and materials available on this website, in this way:

Fifth International Symposium on Assessment for Learning (April, 2014).
     Website International Symposium on Classroom Assessment.
     Accessed at:

Slides used: USA group presentation
Ⓒ2014 Susan Brookhart, Heidi Andrade, Margaret Heritage, Maria Ruiz-Primo and Caroline Wylie